Tau is a protein in nerves that stablizes structures that act as highways within the nerve. Defects leading to accumulation of Tau is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzhiemers disease.
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against tau protein indicate an interaction between the immune system and the neurocytoskeleton and therefore may reflect axonal injury in multiple sclerosis (MS).
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The levels and avidities (strength of binding of the antibody) of anti-tau IgG antibodies were measured in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples obtained from 49 MS patients and 47 controls. Anti-tau antibodies were significantly elevated intrathecally in CSF (p<0.0001) in the MS group. The CSF anti-tau antibody levels were lower in MS patients receiving therapy than those without treatment (p<0.05). The avidities of anti-tau antibodies were higher in the CSF than in the serum (MS group p<0.0001; controls p<0.005). Anti-tau avidities in the CSF were elevated in MS patients in comparison with controls (p <0.05), but not in serum.
CONCLUSIONS: MS patients have higher levels of intrathecal anti-tau antibodies. Anti-tau antibodies have different avidities in different compartments with the highest values in the CSF of MS patients.
We (Team G & Friends) showed that this Tau accumulation also occurred in MS and EAE animal models a few years ago and this further highlights that observation. Was it chicken or the egg and a part of the pathology or a consequence of damage? However, having antibodies againist a nerve protein is not a good idea and could be another way the immune system could be involved in pathology of MS. There are other ways it could be involved.