Simka M et al. Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 patients. Funct Neurol. 2011;26:197-203.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in an unselected cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 586 patients with clinically defined MS underwent catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, brachiocephalic veins and azygos vein. The following findings were regarded as pathologic: no outflow, slowed outflow, reversal of flow direction, prestenotic dilation accompanied by impaired outflow, outflow through collaterals, intraluminal structures obstructing the vein, hypoplasia, agenesia or significant narrowing of the vein. Venous abnormalities were found in 563 patients (96.1%). Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins in 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. Venous pathologies in the right internal jugular vein were found in 64.0% of patients, in the left internal jugular vein in 81.7%, in the left brachiocephalic vein in 1.0%, and in the azygos vein in 4.9%. Venous pathologies were found to be highly associated with MS, yet the clinical relevance of this phenomenon remains to be established.
This further supports some vascular anomoly, but they did not do healthy controls, are they over estimating?
The dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging perfusion technique was used to investigate possible hemodynamic changes in normal appearing white matter and deep gray matter (DGM) of 30 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and 30 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Thirty normal volunteers were studied as controls. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mean transit time values were estimated. Normalization was achieved for each subject with respect to average values of CBF and mean transit time of the hippocampi's dentate gyrus. Measurements concerned three regions of normal white matter of normal volunteers, normal appearing white matter of CIS and patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and DGM regions, bilaterally. All measured normal appearing white matter and DGM regions of the patients with CIS had significantly higher cerebral blood volume and mean transit time values, while averaged DGM regions had significantly lower CBF values, compared to those of normal volunteers (P < 0.001). Regarding patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, all measured normal appearing white matter and DGM regions showed lower CBF values than those of normal volunteers and lower cerebral blood volume and CBF values compared to patients with CIS (P < 0.001). These data provide strong evidence that haemodynamic changes-affecting both white and DGM-may occur even at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis, with CIS patients being significantly different than relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.
Vascular problems at the first clinical signs, surely if it was not there at the start it would be a risk of a Zamboni on thin ice.,
As you can read you do not need to me to do commentary. So this month it is a Happy Zamboni. Must admit I was not so happy to get the type of abuse from the pack. ("redrum"er-Clue Kid says this in "The Shining". Turn it around and it is Spam term.).