Epub: Simka et al. Internal jugular vein entrapment in a multiple sclerosis patient. Case Rep Surg. 2012;2012:293568. doi: 10.1155/2012/293568. Epub 2012.
We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient's mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance
Epub: Al-Radaideh et al. Increased iron accumulation occurs in the earliest stages of demyelinating disease: an ultra-high field susceptibility mapping study in Clinically Isolated Syndrome.Mult Scler. 2012 Nov 8.
OBJECTIVE: To determine, using ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whether changes in iron content occur in the earliest phases of demyelinating disease, by quantifying the magnetic susceptibility of deep grey matter structures in patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) that is suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), as compared with age-matched healthy subjects.
METHODS: We compared 19 CIS patients to 20 age-matched, healthy controls. Scanning of the study subjects was performed on a 7T Philips Achieva system, using a 3-dimensional, T2*-weighted gradient echo acquisition. Phase data were first high-pass filtered, using a dipole fitting method, and then inverted to produce magnetic susceptibility maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to estimate magnetic susceptibility values for deep grey matter structures (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, the thalamus and its pulvinar).
RESULTS: Significantly increased relative susceptibilities were found in the CIS group, compared with controls, for the caudate nucleus (p = < 0.01), putamen (p < 0.01), globus pallidus (p < 0.01) and pulvinar (p < 0.05). We found no significant nor consistent trends in the relationship between susceptibility and age for either the study controls or CIS patients, in any ROI (r(2) < 0.5; p > 0.05). In CIS patients, the time elapsed since the clinical event and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were not correlated with iron levels in any ROI (r(2) < 0.5; p > 0.05); however, a moderate correlation (r(2) = 0.3; p < 0.01) was found between the T1 lesion load and the mean susceptibility of the caudate nucleus.
CONCLUSION: CIS patients showed an increased iron accumulation, as measured using susceptibility mapping of the deep grey matter, suggesting that iron changes did occur at the earlier stages of CIS disease.
Although not CCSVI, the CCSVI Bard linked the condition with Iron deposition and there is no question that there is apparent iron deposition in MS but....now read below
Epub: Van den Berg et al. Occurrence of CCSVI in patients with MS and its relationship with iron metabolism and varicose veins. Eur J Neurol. 2012 Nov 12. doi: 10.1111/ene.12010.
BACKGROUND: A new treatable venous disorder, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), has been proposed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Its relationship with iron metabolism is suggested, but has not been examined prospectively.
METHODS: We performed extra- and transcranial echo colour Doppler (ECD) in 90 patients with MS and 41 healthy controls (HC). Indices of iron metabolism and the presence of peripheral signs of impaired venous flow were also examined.
RESULTS: The ECD examination showed CCSVI in 8 (9%) of the 90 patients with MS and 0 HC (P = 0.11). The 8 CCSVI-positive MS patients were older (P = 0.02), had less often RR-MS (P = 0.02) and had more neurological disability assessed by expanded disability status scale (EDSS, P = 0.001) and longer duration of disease (P = 0.02) in comparison with the 82 CCSVI-negative MS patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that EDSS remained an independent factor associated with CCSVI (odds ratio 1.89, 95%CI 1.17-3.05, P-value = 0.009). CCSVI MS patients more often had bilateral telangiectasia at the legs (P = 0.008), reticular veins (P = 0.006) and venous stasis dermatitis (P = 0.004). No relationship was found between CCSVI and impaired iron metabolism in patients with MS.
CONCLUSIONS: CCSVI is uncommon and is a secondary epiphenomenon in MS and related to more neurological disability and the presence of varicose veins at the legs.
CCSVI epiphenomenon is uncommon and is not the primary problem in MS.
Epub: Scalise et al. Assessment of jugular endovascular malformations in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: colour-Doppler scanning and catheter venography compared with intravascular ultrasound. Phlebology. 2012 Nov 15.
OBJECTIVES: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a malformative condition characterized by several anomalies of the azygos and/or internal jugular veins (IJVs). Recommended diagnosis of CCSVI is performed with colour-Doppler (CD) sonography. Though catheter venography (CV) is considered as the gold standard for determining vascular anatomy, its uniplanar point of view does not allow an overall evaluation of endoluminal structures. This limit could be addressed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). The aim of this report is to evaluate, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), the accuracy of CD sonography and CV versus IVUS in estimating the diameter and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJVs and in detecting jugular endoluminal malformations (JEM).
METHOD: Forty-five MS patients with CCSVI, diagnosed by CD sonography, were submitted to CV during IJVs angioplasty. Twenty-five subjects were also examined with IVUS. The IJVs maximum diameter (MAXD) and CSA were estimated. CD and CV data were compared with IVUS data with the Bland-Altman method.
RESULTS: The mean difference in IJV MAXD recorded by CD and IVUS was -0.5 mm. The mean difference in IJV MAXD recorded by CV and IVUS was 3.36 mm. The mean difference in IJV CSA recorded by CD and IVUS was -11.2 mm(2). JEM recorded by IVUS were detected by CD sonography and CV with 88% and 32% accuracy, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: CV was significantly inferior to CD sonography and IVUS in detecting JEM. Differences between IVUS and CD sonography in detecting JEM and in quantifying jugular diameters were not significant. The IJV CSA was underestimated by CD sonography compared with IVUS. CD sonography was proven to be important in the anatomical characterization of CCSVI, providing useful information for correct intravascular treatment.
This further indicates that detection technique is all important in this debate.
"CCSVI is still trending downwards and remains largely an Italian and Canadian phenomenon!"