Emerging evidence underlines the importance of micro(mi)RNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Free-circulating miRNAs were investigated in serum from MS patients compared to controls. Statistically significant decreased levels of miR-15b, miR-23a and miR-223 were observed in MS patients (p < 0.05). Results were validated and replicated in two further independent MS populations. A direct correlation between miRNA levels and the EDSS score was determined in PPMS (p < 0.007). The generalized trend toward miRNA down-regulation could result in over-expression of target genes involved in disease pathogenesis. Circulating miRNA profiling could thus represent a new avenue to identify easily detectable disease biomarkers.
As we had already reported microRNA are epigenetic effects which means it modifies the effects of DNA. There were less of some of the microRNA variants in PPMS. The next stage is to find out what genes these microRNA are regulating and this may give clues to what drives PPMS