Malmeström C, Axelsson M, Lycke J, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Olsson B. CSF levels of YKL-40 are increased in MS and replaces with immunosuppressive treatment. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Feb 13. pii: S0165-5728(14)00035-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.02.004. [Epub ahead of print]
The role of glial cells during different phases of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. To monitor glial activation we analyzed the biomarkers YKL-40 and sCD14 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from MS patients during different disease phases and in response to immunosuppressive treatment. CSF levels of YKL-40 were increased in MS during relapse, remission and secondary progression compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, YKL-40 levels in CSF decreased by mitoxantrone and natalizumab treatment. No differences were observed in CSF levels of sCD14. Thus, we can infer that glial activation is present in all MS phases and decreases by immunosuppressive treatment.
YKL-40 is a protein secreted by activated macrophages and other cells as is soluble CD14. In this study elevated CSF levels of YKLK-40 was elevated in MS even during remission so another marker of ongoing inflammation this in part was stopped in part by immunosuppressive treatments. We need to do more to get to true NEDA