Pasquali L, Lucchesi C, Pecori C, Metelli MR, Pellegrini S, Iudice A, Bonuccelli U. A clinical and laboratory study evaluating the profile of cytokine levels in relapsing remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 ;278C:53-59
The main aim of the study was to evaluate levels of cytokines IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-alfa, TGB-beta1 and IFN-gamma in 30 patients with relapsing remitting (RRMS) compared to 30 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) in a peripheral blood sample. Statistical analysis showed significant higher levels of IL-17 and IFN-gamma, which are cytokines with pro-inflammatory properties, and lower levels of TGF-beta1, a molecule with immunosuppressant activity, in RRMS compared to SPMS. These results underline the existence of a different cytokines dysregulation in RRMS compared to SPMS phases with higher pro-inflammatory activity in RRMS.
So this study suggests what we know is that SPMS responds differently to control of immune function compared RRMS, and this is reflected by changes in cytokine in blood. However if one is picking free cytokine in the blood then it may not be being used and hoovered-up/or is this dysoned-up :-) as it should be bound to receptors and removed from the blood circulation. However, what we need to know what is happening is in the brain and spinal cord.