Manouchehrinia et al. Mortality in multiple sclerosis: meta-analysis of standardised mortality ratios. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015 May . pii: jnnp-2015-310361
OBJECTIVE: There are inconsistent data on mortality in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We performed a meta-analysis of all-cause, cause-specific and gender-specific crude mortality rates (CMRs), and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in MS, and estimated the rate of change of CMR and SMR over the past 50 years.
METHODS: Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched.
INCLUSION CRITERIA: Availability of data on the number of deaths; mean or median patient follow-up or reports of SMRs; being a longitudinal study. 12 studies were included covering the period 1949-2012 (27 423 patients; 6628 deaths; 437 832 person-years follow-up). CMR was calculated. SMRs were extracted. CMRs and natural logarithm of SMRs were pooled by the method of the inverse of the variance. Meta-regression models were used to investigate the secular trends.
RESULTS: Pooled CMR was 9.78/1000 person-years (95% CI 6.81 to 14.02). Pooled all-cause SMR was 2.80 (95% CI 2.74 to 2.87). All-cause SMR was 2.56 (95% CI 2.47 to 2.66) in males and 3.06 (95% CI 2.97 to 3.17) in females. SMR due to cancer was 0.89 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.97). SMRs due to cardiovascular diseases, suicide, infection and respiratory diseases were 1.29 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.38), 2.13 (95% CI 1.80 to 2.51) and 2.91 (95% CI 2.60 to 3.26). There was no trend in CMRs, all-cause, and gender-specific SMRs.
CONCLUSIONS: The excess mortality in MS relative to the general population has not changed over the past 50 years. Female patients with MS have higher survival disadvantage compared to that of males. Death due to cardiovascular diseases, suicide and infection is higher in patients with MS compared to the general population.
METHODS: 30,402 MS patients and 89,818 non-MS subjects (comparators) in the OptumInsight Research (OIR) database from 1996 to 2009 were included. An MS diagnosis required at least 3 consecutive months of database reporting, with two or more ICD-9 codes of 340 at least 30 days apart, or the combination of 1 ICD-9-340 code and at least 1 MS disease-modifying treatment (DMT) code. Comparators required the absence of ICD-9-340 and DMT codes throughout database reporting. Up to three comparators were matched to each patient for: age in the year of the first relevant code (index year - at least 3 months of reporting in that year were required); sex; region of residence in the index year. Deaths were ascertained from the National Death Index and the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Subjects not identified as deceased were assumed to be alive through the end of 2009.
RESULTS: Annual mortality rates were 899/100,000 among MS patients and 446/100,000 among comparators. Standardized mortality ratios compared to the U.S. population were 1.70 and 0.80, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis yielded a median survival from birth that was 6 years lower among MS patients than among comparators.
CONCLUSIONS: The results show, for the first time in a U.S. population, a survival disadvantage for contemporary MS patients compared to non-MS subjects from the same healthcare system. The 6-year decrement in lifespan parallels a recent report from British Columbia.