Stasiolek M, Linker RA, Hayardeny L, Bar Ilan O, Gold R. Immune parameters of patients treated with laquinimod, a novel oral therapy for the treatment ofmultiple sclerosis: results from a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2015;3(2):45-55. doi: 10.1002/iid3.42.
Laquinimod is a novel orally administered drug for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In this immunological substudy of the phase III Assessment of Oral Laquinimod in Preventing Progression of MS (ALLEGRO) trial, we performed an ex vivo and in vitro analysis of effects exerted by laquinimod on peripheral blood immune cell populations from RRMS patients with a special focus on monocyte phenotype and function. Approximately 100 patients were enrolled following a standardized protocol. Half of the patients received laquinimod and the other half received placebo. Peripheral blood samples were collected prior to commencement of therapy and after 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of continuous therapy. Main lymphocytic and antigen presenting cell fractions were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) ex vivo by flow cytometry. The proliferative response of PBMCs to mitogen or recall antigen was assessed in culture experiments. Untouched monocytes were sorted magnetically and cultured under pro-inflammatory conditions. PBMC analysis showed no significant differences of investigated lymphocytic and antigen presenting cell populations over time within each group, or between the two groups. However, the detailed in vitro analysis of monocytes demonstrated a lower level of CD86 expression on monocytes stimulated with LPS in laquinimod patients beginning from the 1st month of treatment. Upon pro-inflammatory stimulation, monocytes obtained from laquinimod treated patients tended to secrete lower levels of the proinflammatory chemokines CCL2 or CCL5. Taken together, in this prospective study, we demonstrate immune modulation but no immunosuppressive biological activity of laquinimod in a large group of MS patients.
The clinical data is there for all to see that laquinimod has pretty weak activity as a DMT (relapses) in comparison to other treatments and this is borne-out by looking in the blood....not much to report. The real question is: Is this a neuroprotector?, because it seems to have a better effect on progression.