Thursday, 9 July 2015

Education: Naming drugs

You were asking who comes up with the drug names and what do they mean? 

A pharmaceutical company could come up with the name itself or they can spend a lot of money doing market research and they pay marketing companies (I have seen written $100,000-$700,000) to come up with names, as it is how they do marketing. 

Would you want to take a a drug called Shitola? 

I have no idea how they come up with the likes of extavia (sounds like a sugar substitute), tecfidera, lemtrada, tysabri etc. They are registered trade names and may be different in Europe verses USA.

I have some idea of the way the generic names are derived as I need to do it for our new drug VSN16. This was the sixteenth drug made by Cristina Visintin. We have another JW47 which was the forty seventh drug made by Justin Warne who are post-doc Chemists who work with us. 

I quite liked Qmuclofen to reflect its heritage QM & UCL but apparently it sounds too much like baclofen, which is cheap..apparently not good.

We need to come up with a generic name for the drug and there are rules to this. They are often picked to be difficult to say which makes it easy to forget when the trade name arrives. 

In early pre-clinical trials drugs are known by their code names 
e.g. FTY720. 

Then in phase II aand III they may be known by the name of the non-proprietary generic name in this case fingolimod

Then they get a trade name after registration in this case Gilenya


So if we look at the generic names they can tell us what the drug does or what is the target of the drug and this can be found by the STEM (typically the ending).

So fingolIMOD.....This means it is an Immune modulator another of an -IMOD drugs is laquinIMOD.

Ibudilast has the stem -AST..which is an anti-asthma drug it is also a PDE4 inhibitor some of which end in -RAM

These are registered with the Word Health Organisation and this costs $12000 and these are the generic names


The table has columns for the Generic Name Stem, a Stem Definition, and an Example. Each stem has hyphens at one or both ends of its text to show that it is found at the beginning, end, or in the middle of a generic name.

For example, the stem “-azepam” would be found at the end of a generic name, corresponds to the definition “Antianxiety agents (diazepam type)”, and Lorazepam as an example drug.

The stems calci- or -calci- are found at the beginning or middle of “Vitamin D analogues” such as calcipotriene and tacalcitol.
StemDefinitionExamples
-abine(see -arabine, -citabine)decitabine
-acAnti-inflammatory agents (acetic acid derivatives)bromfenac; dexpemedolac
-acetamSee -racetam
-actideSynthetic corticotropinsseractide
-adol or -aldol-Analgesics (mixed opiate receptor agonists/ antagonists)tazadolene; spiradolene; levonantradol
-adoxAntibacterials (quinoline dioxide derivatives)carbadox
-afenoneAntiarrhythmics (propafenone derivatives)alprafenone; diprafenone
-afilPDE5 inhibitorstadalafil
-aj-Antiarrhythmics (ajmaline derivatives)lorajmine
-aldrateAntacid aluminum saltsmagaldrate
-algronAlpha1 - and alpha2 - adrenoreceptor agonistsdabuzalgron
-alolCombined alpha and beta blockerslabetalol; medroxalol
-amivir(see -vir)
-ampaIonotropic non-NMDA glutamate receptors (AMPA and/or KA receptors)
subgroups:
-ampanelIonotropic non-NMDA glutamate receptors (AMPA and/or KA receptors); antagonistsbecampanel
-ampatorIonotropic non-NMDA glutamate receptors (AMPA and/or KA receptors); modulatorsforampator
-andr-Androgensnandrolone
-anibAngiogenesis inhibitorssemaxanib
-anserinSerotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonistsaltanserin; tropanserin; adatanserin
-antelAnthelmintics (undefined group)carbantel
-antroneAntineoplastics; anthraquinone derivativespixantrone
-apselP-selectin antagoniststorapsel
-arabineAntineoplastics (arabinofuranosyl derivatives)fazarabine; fludarabine
aril-, -aril, -aril-Antiviral (arildone derivatives)pleconaril; arildone; fosarilate
-aritAntirheumatics (lobenzarit type)lobenzarit; clobuzarit
-arolAnticoagulants (dicumarol type)dicumarol
-aroneAntiarrhythmicsamiodarone; dronedarone
-arot-Arotinoidsetarotene; sumarotene; tazarotene
subgroup:
-aroteneArotinoid derivativesbexarotene; linarotene; tazarotene
arte-Antimalarials (artemisin derivatives)arteflene
-aseEnzymesalglucerase; dornase alfa
subgroups:
-dismaseEnzymes; superoxide dismutase activity (exception: orgotein)sudismase
-teplaseEnzymes; tissue-type plasminogen activatorsalteplase; duteplase; silteplase
-uplaseEnzymes; urokinase-type plasminogen activatorssaruplase; nasaruplase
-astAntiasthmatics/antiallergics (not acting primarily as antihistamines; leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors)
subgroups:
-lukastAntiasthmatics/antiallergics; leukotriene receptor antagonistscinalukast; pobilukast
-milastAntiasthmatics/antiallergics; type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitorspiclamilast
-trodastAntiasthmatics/antiallergics; thromboxane A2 receptor antagonistsseratrodast
-zolastAntiasthmatics/antiallergics; benzoxazole derivativeseclazolast; ontazolast
-tegr-Antiasthmatics/antiallergics; integrin antagonistsvalategrast
-astineAntihistaminics (histamine-H1 receptor antagonists)ebastine
-(a)tadineTricyclic histaminic-H1 receptor antagonists, loratadine derivativesdesloratadine; rupatadine; somantadine
-atadineTricyclic antiasthmaticsolopatadine; loratadine
-axineAntianxiety, antidepressant inhibitor of norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake
subgroup:
-(f)axineradafaxine
-azenilBenzodiazepine receptor agonists/antagonistsbretazenil; flumazenil
-azepamAntianxiety agents (diazepam type)lorazepam
-azepideCholecystokinin receptor antagonistsdevazepide
-azocineNarcotic antagonists/agonists (6,7-benzomorphan derivatives)quadazocine; ketazocine
-azolineAntihistamines/local vasoconstrictors (antazoline type)antazoline
-azosinAntihypertensives (prazosin type)doxazosin
-bactamBeta-lactamase inhibitorssulbactam
-bamateTranquilizers/antiepileptics (propanediol and pentanediol groups)meprobamate; felbamate
-barb or -barbBarbituric acid derivativesphenobarbital; secobarbital; eterobarb
-begronBeta 3 adrenoreceptor agonisttalibegron
-bendazoleAnthelmintics (tibendazole type)cambendazole
-berelBeta estrogen receptor agonistprinaberel
-bersatAnticonvulsants; antimigraine (benzoylamino-benzpyran derivatives)carabersat; tidembersat
bol- or -bol-Anabolic steroidsbolandiol; mibolerone
-bufenNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, fenbufen derivativesindobufen
-bulinAntineoplastics (mitotic inhibitors; tubulin binders)mivobulin
-butanAntiseptics (dapabutan type)dapabutan; lopobutan
-butazoneAnti-inflammatory analgesics (phenylbutazone type)mofebutazone
-caineLocal anestheticsdibucaine
calci- or -calci-Vitamin D analoguescalcipotriene; tacalcitol
-camraAntivirals (intracellular adhesion molecules, icam-1 derivatives)tremacamra
-camsuleCamphorsulfonic acid derivatives used as UVA sunscreensecamsule
-casanCaspase (interleukin –1b) converting enzyme inhibitorspralnacasan
-caserinSerotonin receptor agonists, primarily 5-HT2lorcaserin; vabicaserin
-castat(see -stat)
-carbefAntibiotics (carbacephem derivatives)loracarbef
-catibCathespin inhibitorsbalicatib
-cavir(see -vir)
cef-Cephalosporinscefazolin
-ceptReceptor molecules, native or modified ( a preceding infix should designate the target)alvircept
subgroups:
-co-Receptor molecules, native or modified;complement receptorsmirococept
-faceptReceptor molecules, native or modified;lymphocyte function-associated with antigen 3 (LFA) receptoralefacept
-farceptReceptor molecules, native or modified; interferon receptorspifarcept
-lefaceptReceptor molecules, native or modified; lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3alefacept
-nerceptReceptor molecules, native or modified; tumor necrosis factor receptorslenercept
-virceptReceptor molecules, native or modified; antiviral receptorsalvircept
-cetReceptors (small molecule)
subgroup:
-calcetReceptors (small molecule); calciumtecalcet
-cetrapibCholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitorstorcetrapib
-cicHepatoprotectives (timonacic type)limazocic
-ciclibCyclin dependent kinase inhibitorsseliciclib
-ciclovir(see -vir)
-cidibCyclin dependent kinase inhibitoralvocidib
-cidinNatural antibiotics (undefined group)gramicidin
-ciguatGuanaline cyclase activatorataciguat; atriciguat
-cillinPenicillinsampicillin
-citabineNucleoside antiviral or antineoplastic agents, cytarabine or azarabine derivativesgemcitabine; fiacitabine; zalcitabine
-clidineMuscarinic agonists (various indications)vedaclidine; talsaclidine
-cloneHypnotics/tranquilizers (zopiclone type)pagoclone
-cogBlood coagulation factors
subgroups:
-eptacogBlood coagulation factors; blood coagulation factor VIIeptacog alfa (activated)
-nonacogBlood coagulation factors; blood coagulation factor IXnonacog alfa
-octocogBlood coagulation factors; blood coagulation factor VIIImoroctocog alfa; octocog alfa
-coginBlood coagulation cascade inhibitortifacogin
-conazoleSystemic antifungals (miconazole type)fluconazole; oxiconazole
-cort-Cortisone derivativeshydrocortisone
-coxibCyclooxygenase-2 inhibitorscelecoxib; parecoxib; valdecoxib
-cridar(see -dar)
-crinatDiuretics (ethacrynic acid derivatives)brocrinat
-crineAcridine derivativesamsacrine; quinacrine
-cromilAntiallergics (cromoglicic acid derivatives)nedocromil
-curium (also -curonium)Neuromuscular blocking agents (quaternary ammonium compounds)atracurium; alcuronium; pipecuronium
-cyclineAntibiotics (tetracycline derivatives)minocycline
-danPositive inotropic agents (pimobendan type)prinoxodan; indolidan
-dapsoneAntimycobacterials (diaminodiphenylsulfone derivatives)acedapsone
-darMultidrug resistance inhibitors
subgroups:
-cridarMultidrug resistance inhibitors;acridine carboxamide derivativeselacridar
-icodarMultidrug resistance inhibitors;pipecolic acid derivativesbiricodar
-quidarMultidrug resistance inhibitors; quinoline derivativeslamiquidar; zozuquidar
-spodarMultidrug resistance inhibitors; ciclosporin D derivativesvalspodar
-denosonAdenosine A receptor agoniststecadenoson; binodenoson
-dermin(see -ermin)
dil-, -dil- or -dilVasodilators (undefined group)fostedil
-dipinePhenylpyridine vasodilators (nifedipine type)darodipine; felodipine
-dismase(see -ase)
-distim(see -stim)
-ditanAntimigraine (5-HT1 receptor agonists)alniditan
-dopaDopamine receptor agonistslevodopa
-doreDopamine D2D3 receptor modulatorsaplindore fumarate
-dotinSynthetic analogs of the dolastatin seriestasidotin HCl
-dralazineAntihypertensives (hydrazine-phthalazines)hydralazine; endralazine
-dronateCalcium metabolism regulatorsetidronate; tiludronate
-dutant(see -tant)
-ectedinEcteinascodin derivativesmonectedin
-ectinAntiparasitics (ivermectin type)doramectin; moxidectin
-elestat(see -stat)
-elvakin(see -kin)
-emcinalErythromycin derivatives lacking antibiotic activitymitemcinal
-entanEndothelin receptor antagonistsbosentan
-eptacog(see -cog)
-eptakin(see -kin)
-erg-Ergot alkaloid derivativespergolide
-eridineAnalgesics (meperidine type)anileridine
-erminGrowth factors
subgroups:
-berminGrowth factors; vascular endothelial growth factorstelbermin
-derminGrowth factors; epidermal growth factorsmurodermin
-ferminGrowth factors; fibroblast growth factorsersofermin
-nerminGrowth factors; tumor necrosis factorssonermin; tasonermin
-plerminGrowth factors; platelet derived growth factorsbecaplermin
-serminGrowth factors; insulin-like growth factorsmecasermin
-terminGrowth factors; transforming growth factorscetermin
sub subgroups:
-oterminGrowth factors; bone morphogenetic proteinsdibotermin alfa
estr- or -estr-Estrogensestrone; fenestrel
subgroups:
-estrantEstrogen antagonistsfulvestrant
-etanideDiuretics (piretanide type)bumetanide
-exakin(see -kin)
-ezolidOxazolidinone antibacterialseperezolid; linezolid
-farnibFarnesyl transferase inhibitortipifarnib
-fenamate"fenamic acid" ester or salt derivativesetofenamate
-fenamic acidAnti-inflammatory agents (anthranilic acid derivatives)flufenamic acid
-feninDiagnostic aids ((phenylcarbamoyl)methyl iminodiacetic acid derivatives)arclofenin
-fenineAnalgesics (fenamic acid subgroup)floctafenine
-fentanilNarcotic analgesics (fentanyl derivatives)alfentanil; mirfentanil; brifentanil
-fentrinePhosphodiesterase inhibitorpumafentrine
-fermin(see -ermin)
-fetamin(e)Amfetamine derivativeslevmetamfetamine
-fibanFibrinogen receptor antagonists (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists)lamifiban; tirofiban
-fibatide(see -tide)
-fibrateAntihyperlipidemics (clofibrate type)bezafibrate
-filconHydrophilic contact lens materialsalphafilcon A; xylofilcon A; mipafilcon A
-fingolSphingosine derivativescedefingol; safingol
-flapon5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitorsquiflapon
-fluraneGeneral inhalation anesthetics (halogenated alkane derivatives)enflurane
-fo-Phosphoro-derivativesadefovir
-foconHydrophobic contact lens materialstrifocon A; pasifocon B; satafoconA
-forminHypoglycemics (phenformin type)buformin
-fradilCalcium channel blockers acting as vasodilatorsmibefradil
-fulvenAntineoplastic, acylfulven derivativesviridofulven
-funginAntifungal antibiotics (undefined group)kalafungin
-fyllineTheophylline derivativesenprofylline; bamifylline; cipamfylline
-gab-Gabamimeticsfengabine
gado-Gadolinium derivatives (principally for diagnostic use)gadodiamide; gadoteridol;gadobenate
-gapilNeuronal apoptosis inhibitors; GAPDHomigapil
-gananAntimicrobial, bactericidal permeability increasing polypeptideiseganan; pexiganan
-gatranThrombin inhibitors (argatroban type)efegatran
-gest-Progestinsmegestrol
-gilineMAO inhibitors, type Bselegiline
-gillinAntibiotics (Aspergillus strains)mitogillin
gli-Antihyperglycemicsgliflumide
-gliptinAntihyperglycemics; dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-IV inhibitorsvildagliptin
-glitazarAntihyperglycemics; PPAR agonists (not thiazolidene derivatives)farglitizar
-glitazoneAntihyperglycemics; PPST agonists (thiazolidene derivatives)ciglitazone; rosiglitazone
-glumideCCK antagonists, antiulcer, anxiolytic agentamiglumide; itriglumide
-golixGnRH receptor antagonists (nonpeptide)rupugolix
-gosivir(see -vir)
-gramostim(see -stim)
-grastim(see -stim)
-grel- or -grelPlatelet aggregation inhibitors (undefined group)itazigrel; dimetagrel; furegrelate
guan-Antihypertensives (guanidine derivatives)guanoctine
-ibatIleal bile acid transport inhibitorbarixibat
-icamAnti-inflammatory agents (isoxicam type)enolicam; tenoxicam
-icodar(see -dar)
-ifen(e)Antiestrogens of the clomifene and tamoxifen groupsnitromifene; raloxifene; droloxifene
-ilideClass III antiarrhythmic agentsibutilide; risotilide; dofetilide
-imepodibInosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitorsmerimepodib
-imexImmunostimulantsforfenimex; roquinimex; ubenimex
-imibe-Antihyperlipidaemics, acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitorseldacimibe; avasimibe; pactimibe
-imodImmunomodulatorsivarimod; pidotimod
subgroup:
-mapimodImmunomodulators; mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitorsdormapimod
-imusImmunosuppressivestacrolimus; napirimus; gusperimus; sirolimus
io-Iodine-containing contrast mediaiodamide
-irudinAnticoagulants (hirudin type)desirudin
-isantHistamine H3 receptor antagonistscipralisant
-isomideAntiarrhythmics (disopyramide derivatives)bidisomide
-ium (also -onium)Quaternary ammonium derivativesclidinium; disiquonium; polixetonium
-ixaforCXCR4 antagonistsplerixifor
-kacinAntibiotics obtained from Streptomyces kanamyceticus (related to kanamycin)amikacin
-kalantPotassium channel antagonistsalmokalant; terikalant
-kalimPotassium channel agonistscromakalim; aprikalim
-kalnerOpener of large conductance calcium-activated (maxi-k) K+ channelsflindokalner
-kef-Enkephalin agonists (various indications)metkephamide; casokefamide
-kinInterleukin type substances
subgroups:
-decakinInterleukin type substances; interleukin-10 analogues and derivativesilodecakin
-dodekinInterleukin type substances; interleukin-12 analogues and derivativesedodekin alfa
-elvekinInterleukin type substances; interleukin 11 analogues and derivativesoprelvekin
-eptakinInterleukin type substances; interleukin 7 analogues and derivatives
-exakinInterleukin type substances; interleukin 6 analogues and derivativesatexakin alfa
-leukinInterleukin type substances; interleukin 2 analogues and derivativesteceleukin; aldesleukin
-nakinInterleukin 1 analogues and derivatives
sub subgroups:
-onakinInterleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; interleukin 1-a analogues and derivativespitonakin
-benakinInterleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 1-b analogues and derivativesmobenakin
-nonakinInterleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 9 analogues and derivatives
-octakinInterleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 8 analogues and derivativesemoctakin
-penkinInterleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 5 analogues and derivatives
-trakinInterleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 4 analogues and derivativesbinetrakin
-kinraInterleukin receptor antagonists
subgroup:
-nakinraInterleukin receptor antagonists; interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonistsanakinra
-kirenRenin inhibitorsditekiren; terlakiren; zankiren
-lazadLipid peroxidation inhibitorstirilazad
-leptinLeptin derivativesmetreleptin
-leukin(see -kin)
-lindPro-apoptotic cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitorsractalind; dractalind
subgroup:
-sulindPro-apoptotic cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors; antineoplastics, sulindac metabolitesexisulind
-lipimLipoprotein lipase activatorsibrolipim
-locibAntineoplastics that inhibit the formation of 5-LO, LTB4, LTC4, and thromboxane B2 (TxB2); and Activate PPARg nuclear receptorsetalocib
-lubantLeukotriene receptor antagonists (treatment of inflammatory skin disorders)ticolubant
-lukast(see -ast)
-lutamideAntiandrogensbicalutamide; flutamide
-lutrilNeutral endopeptidase inhibitors possessing additional endothelin converting enzyme inhibitory activitydaglutril
-mabMonoclonal antibodiesimciromab; abciximab; capromab; dacliximab; detumomab; enlimomab
subgroups:
-axo-Monoclonal antibodies; rat-murine hybrid antibodies
-les-Monoclonal antibodies; infix for inflammatory/infectious lesions
-toxa-Monoclonal antibodies; toxin as a targeturtoxazumab
-mantadine or -mantineAntivirals/antiparkinsonians (adamantane derivatives)rimantadine; dopamantine
-mastat(see -stat)
-melineCholinergic agonists (arecoline derivatives used in treatment of Alzheimer's disease)xanomeline
-melteonSelective melatonin receptor agonistramelteon
-merPolymerscadexomer; carbetimer
-mesineSigma receptor ligandsigmesine; panamesine
-mestaneAntineoplastics (aromatase inhibitors)plomestane
-metacinAnti-inflammatory agents (indomethacin type)zidometacin
-micinAntibiotics (Micromonospora strains)maduramicin; gentamicin
-monamMonobactam antibioticsgloximonam; oximonam; tigemonam
-morelin(see -relin)
-morenNon-peptidic growth hormone secretagoguesibutamoren
-mostim(see -stim)
-motineAntivirals (quinoline derivatives)famotine
-moxinMonoamine oxidase inhibitors (hydrazine derivatives)benmoxin; domoxin
-mulinAntibacterials, pleuromulin derivativesretapamulin
-multinMucosal tolerance inductorsismomultin
-mustineAntineoplastics (chloroethylamine derivatives)carmustine
-mycinAntibiotics (Streptomyces strains)lincomycin
nab- or -nab-Cannabinol derivativesnabazenil; dronabinol
-nakalantMixed sodium/potassium channel blockersvernakalant
-nakin(see -kin)
nal-Narcotic agonists/antagonists (normorphine type)nalmefene
-navir(see -vir)
-nercept(see -cept)
-nermin(see -ermin)
-nertantNeurotensin receptor antagonistsreminertant
-nesibKinesin inhibitorsispinesib
-netant(see -tant)
-neurinNeurotensin receptor antagonists; neurotropinsabrineurin
-niclineNicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists/agonists nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (tenidapaltinicline
-nidapNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (tenidap type)ilonidap; tenidap
-nidazoleAntiprotozoal substances (metronidazole type)tinidazole
nifur-5-nitrofuran derivativesnifuratel; nifuratrone
-nilBenzodiazepine receptor antagonists/agonists
subgroups:
-punilMitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR) selective, partial, or inverse agonists (purine derivatives)emapunil
-quinilBenzodiazepine receptor agonists, also partial or inverse (quinoline derivatives)lirequinil
-nixinAnti-inflammatory agents (anilinonicotinic acid derivatives)clonixin
-nonacog(see -cog)
-nonakin(see -kin)
-octacog(see -cog)
-octakin(see -kin)
-ololBeta-blockers (propranolol type)timolol; atenolol
-oloneSteroids (not prednisolone derivatives)minaxolone
-onideTopical steroids (acetal derivatives)amcinonide
-opiloneEpothilonefilopilone
-orexAnorexiantsfludorex
-orphanNarcotic antagonists/agonists dextro-(morphinan derivatives)methorphan; dextrorphan
-osuranUrotensin receptor antagonistspalosuran
-otilateHepatoprotectants, di-isopropyl-1,3-dithiol- malonate derivativesmivotilate
-oxacinAntibacterials (quinolone derivatives)difloxacin; ciprofloxacin
-oxanAlpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (benzodioxane derivatives)imiloxan
-oxanideAntiparasitics (salicylanilide derivatives)bromoxanide
-oxefAntibiotics (oxacefalosporanic acid derivatives)flomoxef
-oxetineAntidepressants (fluoxetine type)dapoxetine; seproxetine
-pafantPlatelet-activating factor antagonistsapafant; dacopafant; tulopafant; lexipafant
-pamideDiuretics (sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives)alipamide
-pamilCoronary vasodilators (verapamil type)tiapamil
-pamineDopaminergics (butopamine type)fosopamine; ibopamine
-panelAMPA receptor antagonistsfanapanel; irumpanel; talampanel
-parcilAntithromboticsbeciparcil; iliparcil
-parcinGlycopeptide antibioticsavoparcin
-parinHeparin derivatives and low molecular weight (or depolymerized) heparinsheparin; tinzaparin; dalteparin
-parinuxAntithrombotyic indirect selective synthetic factor Xa inhibitorsfondaparinux
-paroidAntithrombotics (heparinoid type)danaparoid; sulparoid
peg-PEGylated compoundspegcaristim; pegnartograstim;pegvisomant
-penemAntibacterial antibiotics (carbapenem derivatives)imipenem
-penkin(see -kin)
perflu-Blood substitutes and/or diagnostics (perfluorochemicals)perflubron; perflunafene
-peridolAntipsychotics (haloperidol type)haloperidol
-peridoneAntipsychotics (risperidone type)risperidone; iloperidone; ocaperidone
-peroneAntianxiety agents/neuroleptics (4'-fluoro-4-piperidinobutyrophenone derivatives)duoperone
-pezilAcetylcholinesterase inhibitors used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s diseaseicopezil; donepezil
-pidemHypnotics/sedatives (zolpidem type)zolpidem; alpidem
-pirdineCognition enhancerslinopirdine; besipirdine; sibopirdine
-piroxAntimycotics (pyridone derivatives)ciclopirox
-pitant(see -tant)
-plactPlatelet factor 4 analogs and derivativesiroplact
-pladibPhospholipase A2 inhibitorsecopladib
-planinAntibacterials (Actinoplanes strains)mideplanin; ramoplanin; teicoplanin
-platinAntineoplastics (platinum derivatives)cisplatin
-plasnininInhibitors of plasminogen activator inhibitors – type 1tiplasninin
-plermin(see -ermin)
-plestim(see -stim)
-plonNon-benzodiazepine anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnoticsocinaplon; zaleplon
-poetinErythropoietinsepoetin alfa; epoetin beta
-porfinBenzoporphyrin derivativesverteporfin; temoporfin
-pramineAntidepressants (imipramine type)lofepramine
-prazanAcid pump inhibitors, not dependent on acid activationomidaprazan
-prazoleAntiulcer agents (benzimidazole derivatives)omeprazole; disuprazole
subgroup:
-maprazoleAntiulcer agents (benzimidazole derivatives); acid pump inhibitorspumaprazole
pred-, -pred- or -predPrednisone and prednisolone derivativesprednicarbate; cloprednol; oxisopred
-pressinVasoconstrictors (vasopressin derivatives)desmopressin
-prideSulpiride derivativesremoxipride; zacopride
-prilAntihypertensives (ACE inhibitors)enalapril; temocapril; spirapril
-prilatAntihypertensives (ACE inhibitors) (diacid analogs of the -pril entity)enalaprilat; spiraprilat
-prinimNootropic agents, purine derivativesleteprinim
-primAntibacterials (trimethoprim type)ormetoprim
-prisnilSelective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRM)asoprisnil
-pristinAntibacterials, pristinamycin derivativesquinupristin; efepristin
-pristoneProgesterone receptor antagonistsmifepristone
-profenAnti-inflammatory/analgesic agents (ibuprofen type)flurbiprofen
-prost- or -prostProstaglandin derivativesrioprostil; dinoprost
-protafibProtein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitorsertiprotafib
-pultide(see -tide)
-progetNonsteroidal ligand for the progesterone receptortanaproget
-quesideCholesterol sequestrants (glycosides)pamaqueside
-racetamNootropes (piracetam type)piracetam
-racilUracil type antineoplasticseniluracil; gemeracil; oteracil
-relinPrehormones or hormone-release stimulating peptides subgroups:nafarelin
subgroups:
-morelinGrowth hormone-release stimulating peptidesdumorelin
-tirelinThyrotropin releasing hormone analoguesprotirelin
-relixHormone-release inhibiting peptides aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone type)detirelix
-renoneAldosterone antagonists (spironolactone type)canrenone
-restat(see -stat)
-retin- or -retinRetinol derivativesetretinate; pelretin
-revTherapeutic virus
subgroup:
-tucirevTherapeutic virus; tumoricidallontucirev
-ribineRibofuranil derivatives (pyrazofurin type)loxoribine
rifa-Antibiotics (rifamycin derivatives)rifapentine; rifampin
-rinoneCardiotonics (amrinone type)milrinone
-rozoleAromatase inhibitors (imidazole/triazole derivatives)letrozole; fadrozole; vorozole
-rsenAntisense oligonucleotidesalicaforsen
-rubicinAntineoplastic antibiotics (daunorubicin type)esorubicin; idarubicin
sal-, -sal- or -salAnti-inflammatory agents (salicylic acid derivatives)mesalamine; diflunisal; balsalazide
-sartanAngiotensin II receptor antagonistslosartan; eprosartan
-semideDiuretics (furosemide type)azosemide
-sermin(see -ermin)
-serodSerotonin receptor antagonists and partial agonistspiboserod
-serpineRauwolfia alkaloid derivativesreserpine
-setronSerotonin 5-HT3 antagonistsondansetron; granisetron; lurosetron
-sibanOxytocin antagonistsbarusiban
-sidomineAntianginals (sydnone derivatives)pirsidomine; molsidomine; linsidomine
som-Growth hormone derivativessomatrem; somatropin
subgroups:
som- -boveGrowth hormone derivatives; bovine somatotropin derivativessometribove
som- -porGrowth hormone derivatives; porcine somatotropin derivativessometripor; somagrepor
-sonan5-HT1B receptor antagonistselzasonan
-spironeAnxiolytics (buspirone type)zalospirone; tiospirone
-spodar(see -dar)
-sporinImmunosuppressants (cyclosporine type)geclesporin; oxeclosporin
-stat-, -statEnzyme inhibitors
subgroups:
-castatEnzyme inhibitors; dopamine beta-hydrolase (DBH) inhibitorsnepicastat
-elestatEnzyme inhibitors; elastase inhibitorssivelestat
-inostatEnzyme inhibitors; inhibitors of histone deacetylasedacinostat
-mastatEnzyme inhibitors; antineoplastics (matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors)batimastat
-(a)mostatEnzyme inhibitors; proteolytic enzyme inhibitorsnafamostat
-restat- or -restatAldose-reductase inhibitorsponalrestat; tolrestat
-vastatinAntihyperlipidemics (HMG-CoA inhibitors)atorvastatin; lovastatin; pravastatin
-urestatUrease inhibitorbenurestat
-stat-Renal dehydropeptidase inhibitorcilastatin
-stat-Pepsin inhibitorpepstatin
-statinRenal dehydropeptidase inhibitor pepsin inhibitorcilastatin; pepstatin
-ster-Steroids (androgens, anabolics)testosterone
-sterideTestosterone reductase inhibitorsepristeride; fenasteride
-stigmineCholinesterase inhibitors (physostigmine type)quilostigmine; teserstigmine
-stimColony-stimulating factors
subgroups:
-distimColony-stimulating factors; conjugates of two different types of colony-stimulating factorsmilodistim
-gramostimColony-stimulating factors; granulocyte macrophage colony- stimulating factors (GM-CSF)molgramostim; regramostim; sargramostim; ecogramostim
-grastimColony-stimulating factors; granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF)filgrastim; lenograstim
-mostimColony-stimulating factors; macrophage colony-stimulating factors (M-CSF)mirimostim
-plestimColony-stimulating factors; interleukin 3 derivatives; pleiotropic colony-stimulating factorsdaniplestim
-stinelNMDA receptor antagonists (glycine recognition site)licostinel
-sulamAntineoplastics, apoptosis inducing sulfonamideindisulam
sulfa-Antimicrobials (sulfonamides derivatives)sulfasalazine
-sulfanAntineoplastics, alkylating agents (methanesulfonate derivatives)busulfan
-sulind(see -lind)
-tantTachykinin (neurokinin) receptor antagonists
subgroups:
-dutantTachykinin (neurokinin) receptor antagonists; NK2 receptor antagonistssaredutant
-netantTachykinin (neurokinin) receptor antagonists; NK3 receptor antagonistsosanetant
-pitantTachykinin (neurokinin) receptor antagonists; NK1 receptor antagonistsdapitant; zinapitant; lanepitant
-tapideMicrosomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitorsimplitapide
-taxelAntineoplastics, taxane derivativespaclitaxel
-tecanAntineoplastics (camptothecine derivatives)topotecan; irinotecan
-tecarinAntineoplastics (rebeccamycin derivatives)becatecarin
-tepaAntineoplastics (thiotepa derivatives)azetepa
-teplase(see -ase)
-termin(see -ermin)
-terolBronchodilators (phenethylamine derivatives)albuterol
-tesindThymidilate synthetase inhibitors (benzindole derivatives)metesind
-texafinTexaphryn derivativesmotexafin
-thiazideDiuretics (thiazide derivatives)chlorothiazide
-tiapineAntipsychotics (dibenzothiazepine derivatives)quitiapine
-tiazemCalcium channel blockers (diltiazem type)diltiazem; clentiazem; iprotiazem
-tibantAntiasthmatics (bradykinin antagonists)icatibant
-tidePeptides and glycopeptidesoctreotide
subgroups:
-fibatidePeptides and glycopeptides; platelet aggregation inhibitors (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists)eptifibatide
-pultidePeptides and glycopeptides; peptides used as pulmonary surfactantssinapultide
-tidineH2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine type)lupitidine; ranitidine; donetidine
-tinibTyrosine kinase inhibitorscanertinib; imatinib; mubritinib
-tirelin(see -relin)
-tiromeAntihyperlidaemic, thyromimetic derivativesanitirome; axitirome
-tocinOxytocin derivativesoxytocin
-toclaxAntineoplastic, BLC-2 inhibitorobatoclax
-toinAntiepileptics (hydantoin derivatives)albutoin
-toranTLR4 receptor antagonistseritoran
-tox(a)-Toxinsurtoxazumab
-traposinAP2 inhibitorsseltraposin
-trexateAntimetabolites (folic acid derivatives)methotrexate
-trexedAntineoplastic thymidylate synthetase inhibitorspemetrexed; ralitrexed; nolatrexed
-tricinAntibiotics (polyene derivatives)mepartricin
-tril -trilatEndopeptidase inhibitorscandoxatril; candoxatrilat
-triptanAntimigraine agents (5-HT1 receptor agonists)naratriptan; oxitriptan; sumatriptan
-triptylineAntidepressants (dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptane derivatives)amitriptyline
-trobanAntithrombotics (thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists)daltroban; sulotroban
-trodast(see -ast)
-trolineAntipsychotics (dopamine D2 antagonists)carvotroline; gevotroline
-trombopagThrombopoetin agonistseltrombopag
trop- or -trop-Atropine derivativesbenztropine
-uclinMucosal tolerance inhibitors
-uplase(see -ase)
-uracilUracil derivatives used as thyroid antagonists and as antineoplasticsfluorouracil
-uridineAntivirals; antineoplastics (uridine derivatives)idoxuridine
-vaptanVasopressin receptor antagonistsconivaptan; relcovaptan
-vastatin(see -stat)
-verineSpasmolytic agents (papaverine type)mebeverine
vin- or -vin-Vinca alkaloidsvinepidine; apovincamine
vir-, -vir- or -virAntiviral substances (undefined group)ganciclovir; enviradine; viroxime; alvircept; delavirdine
subgroups:
-amivirAntiviral substances; neuraminidase inhibitorszanamivir
-cavirAntiviral substances; carbocyclic nucleosideslobucavir
-cyclovirAntiviral substances; (acyclovir type)acyclovir
-ciclovirAntiviral substances; (acyclovir type)desciclovir; famciclovir; penciclovir
-gosivirAntiviral substances; glucosidase inhibitorcelgosivir
-navirAntiviral substances; HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir type)droxinavir; indinavir; ritonavir
-virdineAntiviral substances; (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; pyridine derivatives)atevirdine; delevirdine
-virenzAntivirals (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; benzoxazinone derivatives)efavirenz
-virsenAntivirals (antisense)afovirsen; fomivirsen; trecovirsen
-vircept(see -cept)
-virdine(see -vir)
-virenz(see -vir)
-virimatAntiviral, disrupts viral maturationbevirimat
-virocCCR5 antagonistsmaraviroc
subgroup:
-crivirocCCR5 antagonists, immunomodulatorsancriviroc
-vudineAntineoplastics; antivirals (zidovudine group) (exception: edoxudine)stavudine; lamivudine; alovudine
-xabanAnticoagulant (Factor Xa inhibitor)tamixaban
-xanoxAntiallergic respiratory tract drugs (xanoxic acid derivatives)tixanox
-(x)antroneAntineoplastics, mitoxantrone derivatives aza-anthracenedione class of antitumor agentspixantrone
-zolamideCarbonic anhydrase inhibitorsbrinzolamide; dorzolamide; sezolamide
-zolast(see -ast)
-zomibProteozome inhibitorsbortezomib
-zotan5-HT1A receptor agonists/antagonists acting primarily as neuroprotectorsrobalzotan; sarizotan; ibalzotan; lecozotan

What are we going to call VSN16 either something that inhibits spasticity or something that binds to a target....but can't tell you that yet.

Antibodies in preclinical studies are often known by the code on a 96 well plate. 
The columns are labelled 1-12 and the rows a-h. So 4F12 may be clones from the forth 96 well plate row f column 12. There is one antibody clone that was called FuJA and word on the street was that it meant f**k you JA, with JA being the initials of someone who had made an antibody against the target of FUJA, but they would not give it out so someone had to make one of their own.
I made a cell line called BCTL-1 (Big Chief Team Leader-One) MD2 made one called GP8 which was cell used to make a blood brain barrier.

If we look at anti CD20 antibobodies we have
You can see the stem mab telling you that they are monoclonal antibodies.

-xi- means chimeric so the antibody is part animal in the variable bit and the constant bit is human. (rituximab)
-zu- is humanised, so the antibody is largely human and the antigen binding bits are animal (alemtuzumab, natalizumab, ocrelizumab)
-u(mo)- is human. 

So there is more information such as the target tuzumab (tumor targeting antiboby), so for ocrelizumab we have ocreLI (immune system) ZU (humanised), MAB (monoclonal antibody), so would you pay someone to come up with OCRE...I guess some companies do:-)

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7 comments:

  1. Fascinating. I' too have often wondered how they come up with the names.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Interesting... So it appears that fingolimod is fully based on these guidelines: the first part, fingol, stands for sphingosine derivatives, and you explained -il- and -mod already as immunomodulator. I have not seen on your list any explanation for Laquin- in laquinimod, but I bet quin there stands for a quinoline ring which the molecule contains.

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  3. However Siphonimod is also a sphingosine-one phosphate modulator wonder it this is related to siphoning money away.

    However you may be right the name of laquinimod is 5-chloro-N-ethyl-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide an so I have learned because I don't think they are striving for un-pronouncable names but simply using STENs so they pay companies to come up with LA will the next one be called TI.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Love the siphonimod interpretation!

      Delete
  4. Wow...that post was downright impressive. Bravo, MouseDoctor. Now, I just have to wonder how much time med schools and pharmacy schools give their students to memorize that list. :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. They have to memorise more its amazing the amount of knowledge that meical students have to assimilate

      Delete
  5. Wow - method to the madness hey!
    Thanks!

    ReplyDelete

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