Sunday, 24 September 2017

Up in Smoke

Palacios N, Munger KL, Fitzgerald KC, Hart JE, Chitnis T, Ascherio A, Laden F. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution and risk of multiple sclerosis in two large cohorts of US nurses. Environ Int. 2017 Sep 19;109:64-72.

BACKGROUND:Air pollution is thought to raise the risk of neurological disease by promoting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, glial activation and cerebrovascular damage. Multiple Sclerosis is a common auto-immune disorder, primarily affecting young women. We conducted, to a large prospective study of particulate matter (PM) exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in two prospective cohorts of women: the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II).
METHODS: Cumulative average exposure to different size fractions of PM up to the onset of MS was estimated using spatio-temporal models. Participants were followed from 1998 through 2004 in NHS and from 1988 through 2007 for NHS II. We conducted additional sensitivity analyses stratified by smoking, region of the US, and age, as well as analyses restricted to women who did not move during the study. Analyses were adjusted for age, ancestry, smoking, body mass index at age 18, region, tract level population density, latitude at age 15, and UV index.
RESULTS: We did not observe significant associations between air pollution and MS risk in our cohorts. Among women in the NHS II, the HRs comparing the top vs. bottom quintiles of PM was 1.11 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.74, 1.66), 1.04 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.50) and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.62) for PM10 (≤10μm in diameter), PM2.5 (≤2.5μm in diameter), and PM2.5-10 (2.5 to 10μm in diameter) respectively, and tests for linear trends were not statistically significant. No association between exposure to PM and risk of MS was observed in the NHS.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, exposure to PM air pollution was not related to MS risk.

Phew pollution is not a risk factorof MS,...an makes a change from finding risks...what next?

Can we find something else that doesn't link with MS:-)

But wait like buses, no sooner than one paper on pollution we have two.

Amy M. Lavery, Amy T. Waldman, T Charles Casper, Shelly Roalstad, Meghan Candee, John Rose, Anita Belman, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Examining the Contributions of Environmental Quality to Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a presumed autoimmune disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. It is hypothesized that environmental exposures (such as air and water quality) trigger the innate immune response thereby activating a pro-inflammatory cascade.
Objective:To examine potential environmental factors in pediatric MS using geographic information systems (GIS).
Methods:Pediatric MS cases and healthy controls were identified as part of an ongoing multicenter case-control study. Subjects’ geographic locations were mapped by county centroid to compare to an Environmental Quality Index (EQI). The EQI examines 5 individual environmental components (air, land, water, social, built factors). A composite EQI score and individual scores were compared between cases and controls, stratified by median proximity to enrollment centers (residence <20 or ≥20 miles from the recruiting center), using logistic regression.
Results Of the 287 MS cases and 445 controls, 46% and 49% respectively live in areas where the total EQI is the highest (worst environmental quality). Total EQI was not significantly associated with the odds for MS (p=0.90 <20 miles from center; p=0.43 ≥20 miles); however, worsening air quality significantly impacted the odds for MS in those living near a referral center (OR=2.83; 95%CI 1.5, 5.4) and those who reside ≥20 miles from a referral center (OR=1.61; 95%CI 1.2, 2.3).
Conclusion: Among environmental factors, air quality may contribute to the odds of developing MS in a pediatric population. Future studies will examine specific air constituents and other location-based air exposures and explore potential mechanisms for immune activation by these exposures.

So in this study in childhood MS, risk was not associated with environmental (air, water etc) quality per say..so I thought replication within a day of the above and hopefully the need for no more studies on this:-), but then we had the air quality bit and it says in children living in poor air quality are affected so I spoke too soon. 

You were 3 times more likely to have MS if you live near to the MS hospital in a poor quality area the risk and was one and half times if living more than 20 miles (32km) away. 

So I'm not sure what to make out of this.....numerous other studies on air pollution on the way....:-( 

Do parents with kids with MS move to be nearer treatment centres?

or is it god forbid cars and all the air pollution they cause. 

We have been demonising the hubble ciggie for along time, but should we be ditching the motor...as driving kills!

Will new car adverts have to feature the pictures of car accidents and ill children as a health warning.

Should America start to use public transport for the sake of their children or...Maybe too much heresy for one day:-). 

5 comments:

  1. Oh yes I'll update with what's next blimey

    ReplyDelete
  2. When you run out of theories and
    The clock is out of time,
    Then the MonSter will show it's Face to you,
    Oh, will that be Sublime?
    (Hope poetry doesn't cause...🤔🐺🐝☕️🌸

    ReplyDelete
  3. we travel all the time... i'm kinda interested on the effect of air pollution on existing ms... particularly in places like china.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Nice One.....with all the dietary salt, smoking and now air pollution...there should not be a epidemic of MS in China...


      Maybe this is the reason why there has been so many more papers on MS from China in recent time.

      Do beleive me?

      Go to pubmed search
      "Multiple sclerosis and china and year"

      You get
      1990 = 4 hits
      2000 = 6 hits
      2010 = 90 hits
      2012 = 148 hits
      2015 = 251 hits
      2016 = 291 hits

      See an epidemic of chinese MS researchers:-)

      Delete

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