1.1 Current evidence on the efficacy and safety of percutaneous venoplasty for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufﬁciency (CCSVI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is inadequate in quality and quantity. Therefore, this procedure should only be used in the context of research.
1.2 NICE encourages further research on venoplasty for CCSVI in MS. Clinical trials should be controlled, ideally comparing venoplasty against sham. Technical success should be clearly defined and should include measurement of pressure gradients across treated vein segments before and after venoplasty. Outcomes should include clinical and quality of life measures.